Mesh analysis

The loop or mesh analysis is based on Kirchhoff’s Voltage law. Kirchhoff’s voltage law is based on law of conservation of energy. When more number of elements is connected in series, loop analysis is much easier than nodal analysis as less no. of loops are involved. But, its use is limited to planar and smaller networks only. For larger networks, other technique called network topology is used.

Kirchhoff’s Voltage law –

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Superposition theorem

The superposition theorem is used when more than one source are given in the network. It is very useful in circuit analysis. It is used in converting any circuit into its Norton equivalent or Thevenin equivalent.


The response in any element of linear bilateral network containing more than one source is equal to the sum of the response produced by source acting independently.


Step 1 – Consider a single source acting alone. Deactivate all other sources ( or simply remove) i.e. replace voltage source by short circuit and current source by open circuit, if internal impedance is zero. If internal impedance is known, replace them by their internal impedance. Continue reading

Nodal Analysis

The nodal analysis is based on Kirchhoff’s current law. Kirchhoff’s current law is based on conservation of charges. When number of elements are connected in parallel, nodal analysis is much easier than loop analysis as less no. of nodes are involved. Its use is limited to small networks.

Kirchhoff’s Current Law

This law states that the algebraic sum of all the currents any node in any closed circuit is zero. Continue reading